Por que existem vieses cognitivos na Tomada de Decisão Judicial? A contribuição da Psicologia e das Neurociências para o debate jurídico

Ricardo de Lins e Horta

Resumo


A literatura jurídica brasileira tem começado a se questionar sobre a existência e os efeitos de vieses cognitivos na tomada de decisão juridicamente relevante. Trabalhos teóricos e empíricos recentes vêm recorrendo à literatura em Julgamento e Tomada de Decisão e Economia Comportamental para lançar um novo olhar sobre o fenômeno da decisão jurídica – sem, contudo, proceder a uma avaliação crítica do paradigma das heurísticas e vieses e das teorias do duplo processo. A partir de uma metodologia interdisciplinar, este ensaio busca suprir essa lacuna, apresentando ao público jurídico um levantamento analítico dos modelos comportamentais da literatura em tomada de decisão. Percorremos alguns dos problemas mais salientes no debate recente: a adequação da introspecção como metodologia para compreensão da tomada de decisão, o papel do processamento automático ou inconsciente na decisão, e, sobretudo, por que seria o caso de a racionalidade humana ser passível desses desvios em relação aos parâmetros normativos. Para tanto, duas vertentes explicativas para a existência de vieses são analisadas: a neurofisológica e a evolucionista, com vistas a traçar um cenário mais realista de como a arquitetura cognitiva condiciona a racionalidade humana.

Palavras-chave


Tomada de Decisão Judicial. Heurísticas e Vieses. Teorias do Duplo Processo. Substratos neurais da Consciência. Teoria do Gerenciamento do Erro.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5102/rbpp.v9i3.6089

ISSN 2179-8338 (impresso) - ISSN 2236-1677 (on-line)

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